When answering questions on an open ended assessment, it is important to be both
correct AND complete.
Please write out sample answers...the act of writing will help you remember information AND it will give you a head start in practicing assembling answers that are well thought out and meaningful. Read your answers out loud.
​ If it sounds...hmmm, off, it IS off and needs to be reworked. 

 Welcome to Dr. Kate Brilakis' Learning Portal

                               If you understand the answers to these questions
       (and have not simply memorized an answer you found on my outline or google),
      you will have met the goals for that section and should do well on the assessment.
                      Please practice writing out your answers to these questions
                                                     in advance of the assessment. 


​Goals Biology 112 : Section 1   
Describe the process of evolution by natural selection starting with a mutation in the DNA of a single                      organism.
​   2. Describe five requirements all living organisms share. Which requirements are not met by viruses?
   3. The origin of life on our planet evolved in four basic steps. Explain them.
   4. What is LUCA?
   5. Describe how endosymbiosis explains the origin of eukaryotes.
​   6. Explain the types of data sets that can be used to assemble a cladogram.
​   7.  What is meant by a DNA barcode? What are two applications of barcodes?
​   8.  Describe the general structure of a virus.
​   9. Describe how viruses replicate. What is the difference between budding and lysis?
​  10. What is viral latency? Describe the latency pathway of the herpes virus. 
  11. How do viruses gain entry into their host cell?
​  12. Explain how human influenza viruses are identified.
​  13. How  does the Covid-19 RNA vaccine work to initiate antibody production?
​  14. What is  meant by herd immunity and why is it important in combatting  pandemics.
  15. What are five common characteristics used to compare living organisms
​  16. Domain Archaea includes extremophiles. Give two examples. 
  17. How are members of DomainArchae and Domain Bacteria similar? How are they different?
  18.  How does antibiotic resistance evolve?
​  19. Describe the life cycle of any pathogenic protist?
​  20. Kingdom Fungi exhibits some animal like characteristics. Describe 2. Is this Kingdom more related
         evolutionarily to animals or plants? Explain. 
  21. What is meant by mycoremediation and how does it work?
  22. Describe 5 evolutionary adaptations in Kingdom Plantae.
​  23. Describe the components of a plant's vascular bundle.
  24. How is wood made?
​  25. Describe 5 ways leaves, stems, roots or leaves have been modified to accommodate their environment. 
  26.  Describe 5 evolutionary adaptations in Kingdom Animalia.    
  27. How are the evolution of flight or the evolution of eyes examples of convergent evolution.
​  28. Describe the three parts of a homeostatic mechanism?
​  29. How does a negative feedback loop differ from a positive feedback loop?
​  30. Describe any two homeostatic mechanisms. 
​  31. What is a stem cell? Stems cells exhibit one of three levels of potency. Describe these three levels.
  32. How are embryonic stem cells harvested and cultured?  
  33. Describe three uses biomedical researchers are developing/hope to develop for stem cells.