Axial Skeleton: vertebrae, sternum, ribs

Vertebral Column  =  3 groups of vertebrae + sacrum + coccyx
How many vertebrae are in each grouping? 
Cervical = 7       Thoracic = 12      Lumbar = 5

​Vertebral Curvatures:  

“Primary” vertebral curvatures
           develop before birth
 “Secondary” vertebral curvatures
​          develop in the 1st year of life  


​General Features of Vertebrae:  

 transverse process
 spinous process
 vertebral foramen              
 intervertebral foramina
 superior & inferior articular facets
 pedicle & lamina    
 vertebral arch


Cervical Vertbrae   (C1- C7)    
   C1 =  “atlas”   C2 =  “axis”  C7 =  “vertebra prominens”
  odontoid process ( dens)  on C2 vertebra
  transverse foramen

Thoracic Vertebrae   (T1-T12)
 costal facet  (head of  rib fits here)
 transverse costal facet 
      (tubercle of rib fits here)
 spinous processes
     (longer, downward shape compared to
               cervical & lumbar vertebrae)

 Lumbar Vertebrae   (L1-L5)
 “chunkier” than cervical or thoracic vertebrae

 Sacral Vertebrae / Sacrum
fusion of five sacral vertebrae (S1-S5)
  articulates with L5 and coccyx    
  sacral canal     
  sacral hiatus
  sacral foramina  
  sacral promontory  
  anterior surface of S1            
  median sacral crest
            and your tailbone...
 Coccyx/ ​coccygeal vertebrae


 Thoracic Cage = 
           Sternum + Ribs + Costal cartilage + Thoracic Vertebrae                  

  xiphoid process
  jugular notch

  Ribs/Costal Bones:   
   12 pairs of ribs
      7 pairs of  “true ribs”
      3 pairs of  “false ribs”
      2 pairs floating ribs
   costal cartilage

   Rib w/
     shaft (body)

                                 and for review....

Part 2:
Appendicular Skeleton = shoulder girdle + pelvic girdle  + upper & lower extremities

 Welcome to Dr. Kate Brilakis' Learning Portal

Part 1:
 The Axial Skeleton:
​Axial Skeleton = skull + thoracic cage + vertebral column 

                            Axial Skeleton
                               The Skull               
        Skull =  cranial bones +  facial bones   

Cranial Bones: 
   Parietal (2)
   Occipital (1)
   Sphenoid (1)
   Temporal (2)
   Frontal (1)
   Ethmoid (1)

Facial Bones: 
    Mandible (1)
    Maxillae (2)
    Lacrimal (2)
    Nasal (2)
    Zygomatic (2) 
    Vomer (1)
    Palatine (2)

Skull Sutures (joints):
​Identify the bones each suture joins
   squamous suture        
   coronal suture       
   sagittal suture
   lambdoidal suture       


​Frontal Bone:  
  supraorbital foramen (or notch)
  supraorbital margin 

​​Temporal bones:                    
  mandibular fossa                 
  zygomatic process        
  mastoid process                          
  styloid process                
  carotid canal
  jugular foramen
  foramen lacernum
  external acoustic meatus
  internal acoustic meatus 


Occipital Bone:                                
  occipital condyles
  foramen magnum  
  hypoglossal canal
  occipital protuberance

Sphenoid Bone:
  greater wings
  lesser wings  
  superior &  inferior orbital fissures             
  sella turcica
  optic canal
  foramen ovale    
  foramen spinosum
  foramen rotundum

  cribriform plate
      forms roof of nasal cavity
  cribform foramina  
  crista galli
  perpendicular plate
  nasal conchae

  body & ramus of mandible                                     condylar process
  coronoid process
  mental foramen
  mandibular foramen
  alveolar process
  mandibular symphysis

  alveolar process
  palatine processes    
  infraorbital foramen
  incisive fossa

Lacrimal Bone:
  lacrimal fossa

Paranasal Sinuses = air-filled space w/in          skull bones:
  Frontal  Ethmoid   Sphenoid  Maxillary

​Hyoid Bone:
  does not articulate with any other bone.
  serves as attachment site for muscles of          tongue and neck

 The Skeletal System

                                           Study tips 
Here are some points that are useful to keep in mind when learning the skeletal anatomy....
1. Most bone markings are associated with one of the following:

   a. attachment points for tendons (muscles) & ligaments  (ex: tuberosity, process, ridge)
   b. forms part of a moveable joint  (ex: condyle,  process,  fossa,  notch)
   c. guides blood vessels, nerves, tendons over/through the surface of a bone
       (ex. foramen, canal, notch)
2. For appendicular bones, decide which is the anterior surface and which is posterior
     surface and whether it is from the right or left side of the body. Knowing R vs L is
     essential if you are to correctly identify features indicated as medial or lateral.

3 Recognize that the name of a landmark gives you hints about where it is & what it does.
   For example, the olecranon process fits into the olecranon fossa (= your elbow joint)

4. You are not being asked to know any more than any other A and P student.

Axial Skeleton: Vertebrae and Ribs