Biology 169 Goals
Please use these questions to identify specific topics we explored in our classes. Try to answer these questions as if you are teaching this material to a patient or fellow pre-professional student, providing that individual with enough information so that she/he understands the concept. 

 Welcome to Dr. Kate Brilakis' Learning Portal

                           Section 5:
1. How are the products of meiosis different those of from mitosis? What is crossing over?
    When does it occur and what is its function?
​2. How is the process of oogenesis different from spermatogenesis? Why is there a difference?
3. Spermatogenesis occurs on the _____________ of the teste. Describe the function of the blood-
    testes barrier and the role Sertoli cells play in the formation of this structure.
4. Explain the role the hypothalamus, pituitary and testes play in the hormonal control of spermatogenesis           and male development.
​5.  Describe the path sperm take from their production to release. Include the secretions provided by the               three exocrine glands along the way.
6. Ovarian follicles develop in the ____ of the ovary. Describe the maturation of a follicle from primary                 follicle to corpus albicans.
7. Describe the roles Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle Stimulating Hormone play in the ovarian cycle and
     how these hormones impact the production of estrogen and progesterone as it relates to the uterine cycle
     (include the roles theca and granulosa cells play)
8. How does blastocyst implantation affect the corpus luteum?
9. During fertilization, describe the role each of these structures/processes play:
     corona radiata
     zona pellucida
     cortical vacuoles
      meiosis II
      2nd polar body
​10. With regards to development, the term first cleavage means...
11. Describe the structure of a blastocyst. Which part of this structure may, if implantation and development
      succeeds, develop into an embryo. What role does the trophoblast play in implantation?
12. What is meant by:
​      gastrulation
13. Explain how hormones initiate/regulate parturition.
14. Describe the role the hypothalamus, anterior/posterior pituitary, and nipples play in lactation.

extra credit: question re our virtual genetics discussion Tuesday December 8th.

Energy Mechanics:
1. Why are exergonic reactions coupled with endergonic reactions?
2. ATP is produced when glucose is catabolized. What is ATP and what is its purpose?
​3. Explain what occurs in each step of cellular respiration. 
4. What role does O2 play in cellular respiration? 
5.What is the end goal of  cellular respiration? 
Urinary System:
1. What are the functions of the Urinary System?
   done 2. (to be tested in lab) Describe (or draw)the gross anatomy of the Urinary System.
   done 3. (to be tested in lab) Describe (or draw) the internal anatomy of the kidney.
4. Describe how the structure of a nephron facilitates its function.

As before, please bring a hard copy in to class Wednesday, December 9th and send me a virtual copy before 8am of that day.
​10 pts: 
Choose one of the diseases/disorders listed below. Research and present its cause(s), clinical diagnostics, prevalence, treatments/chronic management (if any), and fertility implications. Two pages or so should be sufficient. 
     gestational diabetes
     androgen insensitivity syndrome   
     genital Human papilloma virus
     atypical genitalia
                           Section 4:

Respiratory System:
1. List the functions of the Respiratory System. 
2.  What is the difference between the visceral and parietal pleura?
3. Describe the structure of the trachea. What is the epiglottis and what is its function?
4.  Describe the pathway of air from the nasal cavity to the lungs. 
5. Describe the different types of respiratory epithelium and where each is found.
    What are the functions of these epithelia and how do their structures facilitate these functions? 
6. Describe how your larynx produces sound.
7. Watch the movie called "signing in the MRI". Wasn't it cool?
​8. Which muscles are involved in inspiration and expiration? How do they accomplish these                    activities?  How does Boyle's Law play a role in inspiration and expiration?
​9. Why do you breathe? What is the function of O2?
10. Where does the CO2 come from that your body must eliminate? 
​11. How is your breathing rate controlled? How is pH involved? Why is pH a factor in respiration? 
Can breathing be controlled by conscious thought? Explain.     
​12.  How does the structure of hemoglobin permit O2 transport?
13. CO2 carried from your cells to your lungs for expiration three ways. What are  they. Describe in more detail how the majority of CO2 is transported by your blood plasma to your lungs.   

Digestive System:
14. What are the four functions of the digestive system?
15. The digestive system is broken down into two parts. What are they and what structures do they include?
16.  What is the difference between the parietal and visceral peritoneum?
17. What is the greater omentum?
​18. List the four layers of the gut. Using an example, explain why the mucosa is different in all four layers.
19. How is the muscularis different in the stomach vs the small intestine? Why is it different?
20. What's the functional difference between gastric pits and villi?
21. What is the function of peristalsis and how does it work?
22.  List 5 functions of saliva.
​23. What is the purpose  of the lower esophageal sphincter?
​24. Starting at the mouth, trace a piece of food as it travels through the digestive tract.
​25. How is the small and large intestine different in regards to function ?
26. Know the four regulatory molecules listed (GIP,CCK etc) and their functions (this will be a matching questions).
​27. Describe how the pancreas is both an exocrine and endocrine structure.
28.  How do the extrinsic (autonomic/parasympathetic )and intrinsic(enteric) work together to control digestion?
29. What are the three phases of digestion and what occurs during each phase?
​29.  Describe how the hepatic portal system works.
30. How does the internal structure of the liver allow it to both filter blood and produce bile?
31.  What is a polymer? monomer? Which nutrient polymers do you consume and what are the monomers that are released when they are digested?
​32. Describe how the three nutrient monomers are absorbed from the lumen of the small intestine.


​                                                                                                        Section 3
1. Referencing innate/non-specific immunity, describe the external defense system.
​2. Briefly describe the four new types of cells we discussed today; macrophages, mast cells, NKCs,         and dendritic cells.
    Looking at this pic --->,
    what can say about
    about the origin of
    these four cell types?
​3. In innate immunity,
    part of the second line
    of defense is inflammation.
    What occurs during this 
4. Cytokines are small, important
     ​proteins (such as interleukin
     and interferon) that are
     secreted by cytokine secreting cells and act as chemical signals within the immune system.                 Sometimes these cells, when in too great a concentration, can cause tissue damage. Explain how
     this might happen.
5. Complement protein cans directly destroy bacterial cells. How do these proteins do this?
​6. Describe:
     the acquired immunity cell mediated response
     the acquired immunity antibody response 
​7. What are antibodies? What is their role in the immune system? How do they accomplish this               role?
​8. When describing influenza, what is meant by H5N1? How does this differ from H1N1? 
9. Tell me about the covid-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019).
10.  How do pathogenic bacteria make you sick?
11. How do vaccine's work to prevent disease?
12. What is meant by the term "herd immunity"? Why is ensuring herd immunity an imperative               when fighting a pandemic?
13. What is meant when a disease is autoimmune?
​14. What causes an allergic reaction?
​15.  What are three functions of the Lymphatic System
16. How is lymph returned to the circulatory system?
​17.  List the functions of the spleen and the thymus gland.
18. How does the structure of a lymph node facilitate its function?
​19. How are lymph nodes and lymph nodules different?

​Section 2:
1. Trace blood flow through the mammalian heart.
2. List the functions of the circulatory system.
3. The circulatory system is composed on two subsystems. What are they? 
4. What are the components of the cardiovascular system?
5. How are arteries and veins similar. How are they different?
     As the lumen size of arteries increases, their proximity to the heart ____________.
6. What is a capillary bed and what is its function? How does this structure fulfill its function
​7. Describe the structure of the pericardium.
8. Why don't pacemaker cells need to rely on the nervous system to reach threshhold?
9. How does the structure of cardiac muscle cells permit synchronized contraction?
​10. Describe the pathway of the cardiac conducti0n system.
​11. What does an ECG measure?
12. In this picture, what is happening at P, QRS, T in terms of
      phases of the cardiac cycle?  

13. How is cardiac output calculated? How is SV determined?
​14. How is heart rate increased or decreased by the autonomic
      nervous system?
​15.  What is Coronary Artery Disease and why is it dangerous?
16. How is fetal blood flow different from newborn blood flow? Why is it different? How does the fetal
       circulatory system change after birth?
​17. Describe the three types of arteries.
18.  Describe the structure of a capillary.
19. Describe the three types of capillaries.
2o. What is a venous valve? What would cause a varicocele in a vein?
​21. How is the pulmonary circuit different from the systemic circuit?
​22. Describe the three types of capillaries.
23.  Describe the structure of a capillary bed. What is the function of pre-capillary sphincters?
​24. ​How is blood flow related to pressure and resistance?
​25. What factors determine resistance?
26. Does capillary hydrostatic pressure increase or decrease as blood flows through a capillary bed? Why?
​2. What does a blood pressure of 130/80 measure? Calculate the MAP of a BP of 130/80.
28. Describe the two pressures that act to facilitate filtration/reabsorbtion across a capillary bed.
29.  Tissue perfusion is impacted by three factors. List them.  
​30. Localized vasoconstriction is an example of which of the three pathways that regulate blood pressure?
       Why might this occur?
31.  Rapid, widespread changes in blood pressure would occur when which pathway was activated?  How                  would the cardiac center and vasomotor center respond to receptors identifying low/high blood
32.  Slower alterations of blood pressure would be accomplished via the endocrine system. What would be
        the endocrine system's response to a low/high blood pressure? 
​33. Describe three functions of blood.
34. What are the four primary components of blood.
35. RBCs primary function is to_________.  How does its structure accommodate this function?
36. Can RBCs undergo mitosis? Explain. Do WBCs undergo mitosis? Explain.
​37. How does a blood clot form?
Section 1:                    
  1. What is homeostasis? Describe in general terms how homeostasis is maintained.
  2. Describe how a negative feedback loop works.
  3. What are the two components of the outer fibrous layer of the eye? How are these two layers similar? How
      are they different?
 4. The middle vascular layer exhibits both the iris and the ciliary body. How does the iris control the amount
      of light that enters the eye? How does the ciliary body control the shape of the lens? 
  5. What are the two components of light? How do we measure light energy? 
  6. Focal distance is... and it is influenced by...
  7. A person's eye test reveal she is 20:40. What does this mean? (we'll chat about this 8/26)
  8. The retina is composed of two layers. They are...    
  9. Rods and cones are both photoreceptors. How are they the same? How are they different?
  10. Explain how photoreceptors provide the brain with sensory information?
  11. What is bleaching
  12. Why is Vitamin A essential for proper vision?
  13. Unlike rods, cones do not display convergence. Why does this permit high resolution vision?
  14.  Describe the visual pathway starting with the ganglion cells and ending at the visual cortex.
​  15.  How do glasses correct poor visual acuity? 
​  16. Describe one disorder/pathology of the eye.
  17.  What is meant by the frequency and amplitude of sound waves?
  18.  Describe the structure of the inner ear. 
  19. How is  the energy from sound waves transmitted from the tympanic membrane to the oval window?
  20. Starting at the oval window and ending at the round window, how does your ear receive, amplify and
        interpret sound?
  21. What is the function of the three (per ear) semicircular canals? How do they function?
  22. Acceleration/deceleration can be detected by structures located in the maculae of both the saccule and
         utricle of each inner ear. How do these structures function?
  23. Describe how olfactory receptors send information to your brain for processing. 
  24. Describe how Gustatory receptors send information to your brain for processing. 
  25. Describe the cochlear pathway and vestibular pathway of the cochlear vestibular nerve.  
​  26. How are the nervous system and the endocrine system related?
​  27. Describe the sequence of hormone action.
  28. Hormone levels are controlled by three homeostatic mechanisms. Describe them.
  29. What role does the hypothalamus play in the endocrine system.
  30.  Describe one hormone pathway that is controlled by the hypothalamus and pituitary.
​  31.  Why is Iodine an essential element for proper metabolic function?
​  32.  How does the parathyroid and thyroid work to control Ca2+ levels?
​  33.   Describe how the pancreas controls blood glucose levels. 
​  34. ANP and the RAA pathway control blood pressure. How?
​  35.  Short term stress vs chronic stress trigger different hormone pathways. Describe both.
  36.  Leptin resistance causes overeating even when the body does not need nourishment. What causes leptin
  37. Describe one disease/disorder that is due to a homeostatic imbalanc
e in the endocrine system.