protein synthesis requires
​essential amino acids

 Digestive System

gut microbiome imbalance


movement of monomers into circulation

regulation of digestion

 protein digestion releases amino acids including 7 essential aa. All 20 amino acids are used to synthesize new proteins.
​when aas are catabolized, urea is released.

 glycogenolysis = liberation of glucose from a polysaccharide (glycogen)
 gluconeogenesis = production of glucose from non-glucose sources like amino acids and fats

Intestinal crypts with Panneth Cells
the secretions produced by Paneth cells contain
antimicrobials that can regulate the composition of our intestinal flora. 

                      Layers of the gut
Inner layer:
The mucosa is a mucous membrane with:
1. epithelium- columnar cells with goblet cells and hormone secreting enteroendocrine cells 
2. lamina propia (areolar conn tissue) with
nerve endings, blood and lymphatic vessels, and some smooth muscle cells
3. muscularis mucosae with two concentric layers: inner circular and outer longitudinal

Next layer:
The Submucosa is made of connective tissue with neural plexus, a network of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers

Next layer:
The Muscularis has circular and longitudinal muscles sandwiched with a myenteric nerve plexus that controls peristalsis

Outer layer:
The Serosa is a serous membrane that covers the muscularis. Some places lack this membrane and exhibit instead the adventitia, a sheath of binding collagen fibers.

digestive "juices"

gut/brain connection


hepatocytes are the cells along the cell plate

lipogenesis requires
​essential fatty acids

monomers are used to build polymers...
polymers are broken down into monomers


Phases of digestion:
1. cephalic
2. gastric
3. intestinal

ATP produced

enzymatic digestion of polymers

intestinal polyps

large intestine

lactose intolerance

Hydrogen's  electron completes a  series of redox rx. energy from these reactions
is used to generate ATP.
last reaction is H + O to form water

small intestine

GIP = gastric inhibitory polypeptide (also glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide) is a hormone secreted by cells of the intestinal mucosa. It blocks the secretion of stomach HCl and stimulates the release of insulin by the pancreas.
​CCK = cholecystokinin is a hormone secreted by the mucosa of the small intestine that reduces the release of chyme from stomach, stimulates the production of bile and stimulates the release of pancreatic juices by pancreas.

​Secretin = released in response to acid in the small intestine. It stimulates the pancreas and bile ducts to release bicarbonates which neutralizes the acid.

​VIP = vasoactive intestinal peptide stimulates the secretion of water and electrolytes, relaxes smooth muscle, dilates blood vessels...all increases motility through intestine.

accessory organs:
the liver

Glucose for cellular respiration comes from sugars and starches you eat AND can be made from other sources when glucose is not available.

digestive system pathology


nutrient absorption and processing

Over the lips through the gums look out stomach here it comes...

 Digestive System

one glucose (6C) broken down
2 pyruvates produced (3C each)

glucose = monomer 

crohn's disease

ATP produced


accessory organs:
​the pancreas

amino acids = monomers 

electron ​ transport chain

The sphincter of Oddi is a muscular valve that controls the 
secretions from the bile duct and pancreatic duct into small intestine. This sphincter opens when food is present.

2 pyruvates (3C each)
​broken down 
6CO2 produced
H carried to next step


< urinary system


starch =  polysaccharide = polymer 

 Welcome to Dr. Kate Brilakis' Learning Portal

glycerol and fatty acids = monomers 



ATP produced

polypeptide/protein = polymer 

triglyceride (lipid) = polymer 

  Digestive System

kerb cycle


stomach ulcers

cellular respiration
catabolizes glucose and anabolizes ATP

gluten intolerance/
​celiac disease

lipid metabolism

step 1: